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About Indus Waters Treaty 'IWT' between India and Pakistan: Details, Highlights

 

 

About Indus Waters Treaty 'IWT' between India and Pakistan: Details, Highlights

Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) is a water-distribution treaty between India and Pakistan which was brokered by World Bank (then the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development).

Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) deals with the sharing of water of Indus water system having six rivers — Beas, Ravi, Sutlej, Indus, Chenab, and Jhelum between the two countries.

IWT was signed by then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and President of Pakistan Ayub Khan in Karachi on September 19, 1960.

IWT is most successful water treaty in the world as it has survived India-Pakistan wars of 1965, 1971 and the 1999 Kargil standoff besides Kashmir insurgency since 1990.

IWT control over three eastern rivers Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej are with India. While control over three western rivers Indus, Jhelum and Chenab was given to Pakistan.

IWT allows India to use only 20% of the water of the Indus river, which flows through it first, for irrigation, power generation, and transport.

IWT also sets out a mechanism for cooperation and information exchange between two countries regarding their use of the rivers. It sets up Permanent Indus Commission (PIC) as a bilateral commission to implement and manage the treaty.

IWT also makes mandatory for both countries to appoint water commissioners, who are required to meet twice a year and arrange technical visits to projects’ sites.

IWT also provides an arbitration mechanism to solve disputes amicably. The World Bank’s role in relation to “disputes” and “differences” with respect of IWT is limited to the designation of people to fulfill certain roles when requested by either or both of the parties.


 

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