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Ghulam Dynasty: establishment, rulers, governance, sultanate



The Slave Dynasty (Ghulam Dynasty) and their rulers

There were Muslim invasions into India resulted in the established from AD 1206 to 1526. There were five dynasties in the Delhi Sultanate, The Slave dynasty, Khalji, Tuglaq, Sayyids, and Lodis.

Slave dynasty (Ghulam Dynasty) of Delhi Sultanate(1206-90):

The Slave dynasty was also known as the Mamluk dynasty. They were Turkish in origin. Qutub-ud-din-Aibak established the slave dynasty. He was a slave of Mohammad Ghori. Other important rulers of this dynasty were:

Qutub-ud-din-Aibak constructed 2 mosques, ‘Quwat-ul-Islam’ at Delhi and ‘Adhai din ka Johpra’ at Ajmer. He also commissioned the construction of Qutub Minar in honor of Sufi saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar.

Iltutmish was a slave of Aibak. He belonged to the Ilbari tribe. Iltutmish is credited for shifting the capital of his empire to Delhi from Lahore. Iltutmish saved India from Mongol wrath of Chengiz Khan. Iltutmish issued silver Tanka, introducing Arabic coinage in India. Various Sufi saint Minhaj-us-Siraj, Taj-ud-din, Nizam-ul-Mulk, Fakhrul-Mulk Isami. Iltutmish completed the construction of Qutb Minar at Delhi.

Raziya was nominated by Iltutmish as his successor. She was the first and only Muslim lady who ever ruled India. In 1240 AD, Razia was defeated and killed.

Ghiyasuddin Balban usurped the throne when the previous Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud, his son-in-law. He created a strong centralized army to handle internal disturbances. Balban introduced rigorous court discipline. He introduced the Persian festival of Nauroz. He established a separate military department known as diwan-i-arz.


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